A review of pyrethroid and mitin analysis in environmental matrices by sample extraction & preparation, ELISAs with a unique focus on GC/NICI-MS
Peter J Baugh, FRSC, Leader, EFASIG, The BMSS, c/o 23, Priory Road Sale M33 2BU, UK
Since the 1980s, pyrethroids, such as permethrin and cyfluthrin, have replaced other more intransigent and unreliable pesticides/insecticides as proofing agents for a range of applications, for example, to protect fabrics against moth invasion and bed net materials for employment in African countries in prevention of invasive mosquito attack.
However, these pyrethroids do present a hazard to the welfare of the unborn child and considerable care has to take during the process of application and handling, particularly, where the quantities applied are considerably above the levels allowed in environments occupied by or adjacent to human habitation, water, flora and fauna.
A number of analytical techniques have been used to monitor these pesticides, including chromatography mass spectrometry and ELISAs. Correlation between these techniques has been successfully investigated by researchers in the 1990s in relation to determining the levels of these pyrethroids in water courses, flora, fauna and in bed net materials. Parallel techniques have been used to analyse for mitins in environmental samples but employing LC-ESI-MS-MS.
This concise review outlines the earlier work and provides a brief summary of some the more recent studies in the application of techniques since to highlight the research work undertaken with a unique focus on the utilization of GC/NICI-MS in conjunction with ELISA. Selected and representative figures and tables are featured in the papers to highlight the results obtained.
Keywords pyrethroids, mitins, GC/NICI-MS (& LC-ESI-MS-MS), ELISA, environmental matrix, sample preparation, quantitation, correlation.
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Poster presented at EFASIG2019 and BMSS40